Percent of facilities whose stock levels ensure near-term product availability
This indicator measures the percent of facilities with stock levels greater than zero and below the established maximum level for each full-supply method/brand/product of interest at a point in time (e.g., the day of visit). Where stock levels are greater than zero but below the established minimum level, evaluators must find an outstanding order for replacement stock, made at or before the time stock levels reached minimum.
This indicator is calculated as:
(Number of facilities that have stock levels above zero but below the established maximum level for the product / Total number of facilities reviewed) x 100
Evaluators can report the indicator at the facility level or aggregate it for a sample of facilities or for the entire program. At any level, evaluators should calculate and report the indicator separately for each product of interest so that each product receives a unique measure. If so desired, evaluators can further aggregate to construct additional indicators, such as the percent of facilities with all full-supply products adequately stocked. Averaging all products for an “average” stock level adequacy is not recommended, because oversupply in one product can cancel out undersupply in another, and thus falsely imply that average stock levels were adequate.
Stock levels of all products of interest at a point in time (e.g., the day of the visit); maximum and minimum stock levels established by the program; historical consumption or issues data for each product at each facility; and records of recent orders (for products below minimum levels).
If targeting and/or linking to inequity, stratify survey sample by location (poor/not poor) and disaggregate by location.
A facility survey/logistics site visit – to all facilities or to a representative sample – is frequently necessary to assess stock levels. Evaluators may collect stock data by taking a physical inventory or by reviewing the stock ledger or stock cards. In some countries/ programs, the logistics management information system (LMIS) or supervisory/ staff records may provide usable stock-level data. The LMIS should also provide maximum and minimum stock levels along with consumption data by product. Service statistics or similar records may provide the needed data on consumption or issues if the LMIS does not.
This indicator provides an overall measure of whether stock levels of products are adequate at a point in time. It helps reveal overstock situations that could lead to product expiration and wastage, and low stock levels that could result in stockouts or rationing. In applying this indicator, evaluators must carefully evaluate facilities where stock quantities are below established minimum levels. To do so, the evaluator should determine whether a new order was placed when stock levels reached minimum. If such an order is outstanding, then the evaluator may consider stock status adequate, because the order will likely arrive before the facility stocks out. If not, the stock status is inadequate.
Evaluators should apply the indicator only to products the program has committed to keeping in full supply, because stock status at a point in time for non-full-supply products may reflect only the length of time since the last shipment arrived rather than measuring whether inventory management procedures are effective. Ideally, evaluators will measure stock status over a period of time, but this approach is usually possible only where the LMIS is automated.
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