National policy adopted on all provisions stipulated in the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes
The country has adopted as policies, ideally reflected in legislation, all the provisions of the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes.
Recommended criteria for ranking policies (UNICEF, 2010):
Yes: All provisions of the International Code adopted in legislation.
Partial: Voluntary agreements on or some provisions of the International Code adopted in legislation
No: No legislation and no voluntary agreements adopted in relation to the International Code
For more details on the Code, updates, monitoring compliance and related recommendations for maternity and health facilities, see WHO (1981); WHO (2008); and WHO/UNICEF (2009).
Evidence of the presence or absence of policies and/or legislation on the international code provisions.
Government documents or other means of verifying the existence of relevant policies, legislation, or regulations; Government reports on code compliance submitted to the WHO Director-General; Interviews with government officials and key informants
The indicator measures the level of government compliance in setting policy that meets the WHO recommendations for the proper use, marketing, and distribution of breast milk substitutes. The indicator can capture formal policy decisions as demonstrated through written policies and/or the adoption of legislation to enforce and monitor the code. The purpose for the Code is to create an overall environment that supports mothers in making the best possible feeding choices for their infants through protecting breastfeeding and ensuring proper use of breast milk substitutes, when they are needed.
The full Code recommendations include the 1981 The World Health Assembly (WHA) International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes and subsequent WHA resolutions that are also part of the Code (WHO, 1981; WHO 2008). The Code requires that there should be no promotion of breast milk substitutes, bottles and teats to the general public; that neither health facilities nor health professionals have a role in promoting breast milk substitutes; and that free samples are not provided to pregnant women, new mothers or families.
Enforcement of the Code is a matter for each country to decide, in keeping with its social and legislative framework. Based the WHA resolutions, governments are to develop effective monitoring and reporting mechanisms for implementing the code. These processes are to be transparent, independent, and free from commercial influence. Governments are asked to report annually to the WHO Director-General on their actions on the recommendations.
For the WHO member nations, the details for implementation are within the domain of each government, particularly processes for monitoring and handling violations. Therefore, identification, prosecution, and consequences for companies and entities violating the code can vary by country, and these differences may not be accurately or fully reflected in internal documentation and reports to WHO.
policy, breastfeeding (BF), newborn (NB)
UNICEF, 2010, Tracking Progress on Child and Maternal Nutrition, New York: UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Tracking_Progress_on_Child_and_Maternal_Nutrition_EN_110309.pdf
WHO, 1981, The International Code of Marketing Breast-Milk Substitutes, Geneva: WHO. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/9241541601.pdf
WHO, 2008, The International Code of Marketing Breast-Milk Substitutes: Frequently Asked Questions. Geneva: WHO. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241594295_eng.pdf
WHO/UNICEF, 2009, Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, updated and expanded for integrated care, Geneva: WHO http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/infantfeeding/bfhi_trainingcourse/en/